Siham Salmen and Lisbeth Berrueta
A continue loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, immune response dysfunction and chronic immune activation (IA) are hallmarks of untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. ROS and the subsequent oxidative stress have been connected with chronic activation of the immune system, viral replication, immune dysfunction, programmed cell death, and neurological damage, all considered to be major contributing issues in HIV-1 diseases progression. It has been demonstrated that HAART partially restore the antioxidant capacity by suppressing HIV, and it has been suggested that antioxidant therapy in combination with HAART could protect the blood brain barrier from oxidative stressinduced damage. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how HIV could modulate ROS generation and several HIV proteins have been shown to modulate ROS production. This review is intended to highlight the role played by ROS as modulators of the immune system during the course of HIV infection, which could explain its contribution to disease progression, opening the scope to new strategies for drug design and future treatment.